Appendix I – Acids

Notes that correspond to headings for Natural Oils Reference Chart


Quick Links to Chart Headings

Comedogenic Rating Myristic acid % Ximenynic acid %
Linoleic acid % Gamma-Linolenic acid % Stearic acid %
(Alpha) Linolenic acid % Eicosenoic acid % Palmitic acid %
Oleic acid % Ricinoleic acid % Palmitoleic acid %
Lauric acid % Pinolenic acid %


Comedogenic Rating

  • Rated 0 to 5; 0 = non-clogging, 5 = clogging
  • Determines if an oil will clog pores on face or body, which will then give you zits
  • The lower the rating, the less likely the oil will clog pores

Linoleic acid %

  • Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated Omega 6 fatty acid also known as Vitamin F
  • when taken internally (through foods like poultry, nuts, whole grains), the body must metabolize the linoleic acid into other substances (such as GLA) for it to reach its potential
  • skin & hair regeneration, body naturally produces it
  • anti-inflammatory, moisturizing and healing support. It also helps fight acne, softens the skin
  • permeates the skin barrier
  •  accelerates healing, help treat burns, cold sores and other minor wounds
  • deficiencies lead to dry hair, hair loss, poor wound healing
  • good for dry skin
  • High levels (50-80%) found in oils: Guava Seed Oil, Maracuja Oil, Evening Primrose, Safflower, Goji Seed Oil, Grape Seed Oil, Watermelon Seed Oil, Blackberry Seed Oil, Milk Thistle Seed Oil, Cucumber Seed, Sunflower Seed, Poppy Seed, Hemp Seed, Black Cumin Seed, Red Raspberry Seed Oil, Walnut Oil, Soybean Oil and more. (See Natural Oils Reference Chart for a more complete list).

(Sources:, )

(Alpha) Linolenic acid %

  • polyunsaturated Omega-3 fatty acid
  • healing because it permeates skin barrier
  • cell regeneration, moisturizing, anti-inflammatory, etc.
  • good to combine with other
  • Found in natural oils : Kiwi Seed Oil, Chia Seed Oil, Linseed Oil, Wheat Germ Oil, Sacha Inchi Oil, Elderberry Seed Oil, Strawberry Seed Oil, Black Raspberry Seed Oil, Kukui Nut Oil, Blueberry Seed, Red Raspberry Seed, Cranberry Seed, Black Current Seed, Blackberry Seed, Broccoli Seed Oil, Mustard Seed Oil, Hemp Seed, Walnut Oil, and others. (See Natural Oils Reference Chart for more a complete list).

Oleic acid %

  • mono-saturated Omega 9 fatty acid
  • good for oily/acne skin caused by dry skin
  • chart displays amount of Oleic acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in most natural oils – consult chart for specifics

Lauric acid %

  • amino acid/saturated fatty acid
  • white powdery solid
  • potent for a long time
  • helps water mix with oil
  • anti-fungal
  • chart displays amount of Lauric acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in Babassu Oil, Coconut Oil, Date Seed Oil and Palm Kernel Oil,

Myristic acid %

  • saturated fatty acid salt
  • absorbs into skin
  • cleansing agent
  • reduces transparency
  • anti-caking agent, binder, helps mix ingredients together
  • chart displays amount of Myristic acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in Babassu Oil

Gamma-Linolenic acid %

  • Gamma-Linolenic acid, or GLA, is a polyunsaturated Omega 6 fatty acid (essential for human health but the body does not produce it).
  • GLA plays an essential role in brain function, maintains bone health, regulates metabolism, and maintains the reproductive system (human milk contains GLA)
  • stimulates skin and hair growth
  •  may reduce symptoms of eczema and acne
  • The body converts Linoleic acid to GLA (The body gets Linolenic acid from Omega 6-rich foods, such as poultry, eggs, nuts, whole grain breads)
  • anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation)
  • Borage Oil, Black Current Seed Oil, and Evening Primrose contain GLA


Eicosenoic acid %

  • Monounsaturated Omega-9 fatty acid
  • Increases skin permeation
  • chart displays amount of Eicosenoic acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in Jojoba Oil and Meadowfoam Seed Oil,

Ricinoleic acid %

  • unsaturated Omega 9 fatty acid
  • carrier oil
  • anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti acne, cleansing, hydrating, moisturizing, diminish warts, stretch marks, anti-wrinkle.
  • Unique to Castor Oil

Pinolenic acid %

  • unsaturated fatty acid only found in pine nuts (see chart for Pine Nut Oil )
  • suppresses hunger and helps with weight loss
  • skincare: treating aged, sensitive, dry, flaky, wrinkled or photo-damaged skin

Ximenynic acid %

  • a fatty acid that can be extracted from the fruit kernels of three South American species
  • known to assist in the protection of skin from lines, wrinkles & stimulate blood circulation
  • chart displays amount of Ximenynic acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in Sandalwood Seed Oil

Stearic acid %

  • Saturated fatty acid
  • helps water and oil mix
  • used as an additive in cosmetics
  • chart displays amount of Stearic acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in Cocoa Butter, Coconut Butter, Mango Butter, Mango Seed Oil, Neem Oil, Sesame Oil, Shea Butter, Shea Nut Oil and Tamanu Oil

Palmitic acid %

  • Saturated fatty acid
  • most common fatty acid found in animals, plants, and microorganisms
  • fatty acid found in skin, decreases as people age
  • softens, smoothens skin
  • creates foam, which means it can be drying (used for cleansing)
  • chart displays amount of Stearic acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in Coconut Butter, Macadamia Nut Oil, Mango Butter, Mink Oil, Neem Oil, Olive Oil, Papaya Seed Oil, Peach Kernel Oil, Peanut Oil (aka Groundnut Oil), Red Palm Oil, Rice Bran Oil, Seabuckthorn Berry Oil, Tamanu Oil

Palmitoleic acid %

  • Monosaturated Omega-7 fatty acid
  • found in the liver
  • biosynthesized from palmitic acid
  • increases insulin sensitivity by suppressing inflammation
  • anti-age for skin
  • chart displays amount of Palmitoleic acid in the oil as a percentage (%)
  • Found in Mink Oil and Seabuckthorn Berry Oil